There are several types of retinal pathologes. The most common ones are: Diabetic Retinopathy, Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Vascular Diseases.
Diagnosis is made with an eye examination and imaging (e.g. OCT and OCT angiography) and the treatment with intravitreal injections (e.g. avastin, lucentis, eyelea, triesence, kenalog, ozurdex)
Breaks of the retina increase the risk for Retinal Detachment. If you notice any symptoms like flashes, floaters, or a black curtain in front of your sight you are promptly adviced to have a fundus examination as soon as possible.
Treatment of retinal tears includes laser or surgery.